Industrial Ecology

The NSW EPA has case studies on industrial ecology

What if the waste of one business could be a resource for another? Known as ‘industrial ecology’ or ‘industrial symbiosis’, networks are being set up to facilitate the exchange of one company’s waste so it becomes the input for another’s business. 


As a field industrial ecology focuses on the sustainable combination of business, environment, and technology, while industrial symbiosis is a subset of this which focuses on material and energy exchange. Its basic tenet is the circular economy which shifts industrial processes from linear systems, in which resources move through the system from extraction to use and then disposal as waste to a closed loop system where waste becomes an input for new processes. Put simply, it’s where one company’s trash becomes another’s treasure.

The Benefits to Business

As the cost of waste disposal increases it becomes less cost-effective to send material to landfill. To be seen as efficient and socially responsible, businesses need to consider the end-of-pipe impacts of their activities. In addition to reducing the demands on the earth’s resources, industrial ecology has benefits to business. This includes:

  • Reduced operating costs
  • New business opportunities and jobs
  • Improved technical processes
  • Improved awareness of waste streams

Case Studies

Looking for examples of industrial ecology in action? The NSW EPA have developed a number of case studies about the positive outcomes for organisations involved in the industrial ecology network.

Devro Pty Ltd - Simple Solutions for Food Waste (698kb pdf file)

DEXUS, Lend Lease & The GPT Group - Governor Macquarie Tower Defit (350kb pdf file)

Lismore Workers Club - Sustainable Waste Initiative (255kb pdf file)

Mission Australia - Mattress Recycling (264kb pdf file)

REMONDIS - Wood & Plastic Pallet Recycling (363kb pdf file)

There are also case studies of organisations who have engaged through the ASPIRE program.

Where Can Businesses Start?

Industrial ecology is in its early days in Australia. To function effectively industrial ecology needs collaboration between governments, academia and the private sector.  A number of networks, forums and tools have been developed to facilitate this collaboration.

New South Wales - Circulate, NSW EPA Industrial Ecology

Circulate, NSW EPA Industrial Ecology is assisting businesses to achieve competiveness and improved bottom lines through better environmental practices.

The NSW EPA funds Industrial Ecology facilitators to work with organisations in NSW to help them identify and implement projects that will reduce waste or provide them with resources to create new material.

Over four years to 2017, Circulate is seeking to engage with 1,000 medium to large enterprises; establish 100 industrial ecology projects across NSW; target 160,000 tonnes of landfill diversion; and generate $21 million dollars in additional income and/or savings for participating businesses.

How can your organisation become involved in this industrial ecology network? Simply contact the facilitator in your area, they will assist your business identify resource recovery opportunities. Find out more…  

Victoria - ASPIRE

The CSIRO has built an online tool that identifies potential business-to-business resource exchanges. ASPIRE is an online marketplace which intelligently matches businesses with potential purchasers or recyclers of waste by-products. It is run by the CSIRO in collaboration with local councils and business networks.

Currently, ASPIRE is operating in its pilot phase and open to business operating in the  four member councils  - City of Kingston, Hume City , Knox City, and Greater Dandenong. Find out more…

National - Australian Industrial Ecology Network

The Australian Industrial Ecology Network is a company established to offer a forum in which members can seek advice, discuss ideas, canvas issues of interest and connect with resources associated with the practice and study of industrial ecology. It is a network of individuals, companies and institutions with a common interest in sustainable development through the study and practice of industrial ecology. Find out more…